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CHEMICAL COMPONENT AND ANATOMICAL FEATURES OF THREE SPECIES OF BAMBOOS

Elyazar MANUHUWA and Mery LOIWATU
Faculty od Agriculture, Pattimura University, Ambon
E-mail: elli_manuhuwa@yahoo.co.id

ABSTRACT

As a versatile plant, the basic properties of bamboo are vary depend on species, site, and position inside the stem. This study was conducted at three sites (Buria, Morekao, Tala), on three species (Dendrocalamus asper, Schizostachyium brachycladum, Schyzotachium lima), and three position of the stem (base, middle, top). Objective of the study is to measure chemical component and anatomical features of three species of bamboos (Dendrocalamus asper, Schizostachyium brachycladum, Schyzostachyium lima) of West Ceram’s sub-district (Taniwel, Piru, Kairatu), and three part of stem (base, middle, top). Factorial experiment in split plot design was applied in the study with 3 replications.

Result of the study indicated that there was significant effect of location to the lignin content, diameter of fiber and fiber cell lumen, and proportion of parenchyma cell; species of bamboos to the length and diameter of fiber cell; and portion of stem to the extractive soluble in hot water, soluble in alcohol benzene, length and diameter of fiber cell, and diameter of fiber lumen.

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Extractive soluble in cold water was 3.10%-3,79%; hot water was 5,43%-6,23%; alcohol benzene was 3,37%-4,10%; alpha cellulose was 44,22%-46,94%; holo cellulose was 71,97%-75,57%; lignin was 26,00%-27,37%; length of fiber cell was 3,40mm-3,96mm; diameter of fiber cell was 4,34micron-4,91micron; diameter of fiber cell lumen was 2,74micron-3,23micron; cell wall thickness of fiber cell was 0,76micron-0,91micron; proportion of parenchyma cell was 51,95%-56,85%; proportion of fiber cell was 27,81%-62,66%; and proportion of pore was 12,39%-14,60%. Keywords : bamboos, chemical component, extractive, cellulose, lignin, anatomical features.

Introduction

At Ceram island , people can find naturally wild bamboo especially several at sub district Taniwel, Piru and Kairatu. At Taniwel, chopstick company was used wild bamboo as raw material unfortunately it had been closed because of mismanagement even though there is big potential of bamboo. There is several furniture and handicraft producer made of bamboo as a household business at Piru. Traditionally, local people was used wild bamboo for daily life based on their experiences such as Petung (Dendrocalamus asper), Sero (Schizostachyium brachycladum), and Tui (Schizostachyum lima). The value and suitable of bamboo to form one product was not depend only the experiences but also basic properties of bamboo which is not common recognize by people and industry. One of basic properties are chemical component and anatomical features of bamboo. Based on the basic properties, the use bamboo as raw material in such product might be encourage that the kind of product is common practice traditionally by local people. In the other hand, such product might be developed with reliable technology and processes that promoted in the future. Together with the study is to collect data and information about the relationship between basic properties of bamboo with location, species and portion of the cane. Objective of the study was to determine chemical component and anatomical features of 3 (three) species of bamboo such as petung (Dendrocalamus asper), sero (Schizostachyium brachycladum), and tui (Schizostachyium lima) at 3 (three) sub districts such as Taniwel, Piru and Kairatu, and 3 (three) portion of the cane (bottom, middle, top).

Materials and methods

Bamboo cane was collected from 3 (three) village (Buria, Morekao and Tala) of West Seram District, Mollucas. Chemical component analyses was conducted at Laboratorium Kimia Dasar Unpatti, and anatomical features at Faculty of Forestry, UGM Jogya. 3 (three) bamboo cane was cut from the clump, then it was cut into 3 (three) portions (bottom, middle, top). 3 (three) specimen of bamboo as replication was cut from each portion of the cane to determine chemical component and anatomical features. Kinds of the specimen comply the standard requirement such as, a. Samples for chemical component of bamboo was made in form of sawdust. Solvent and reagent was used such as alcohol benzene, H2O; glacial acetic acid, NaCl2, ice, acetate acid 1% and 10%, acetone, NaOH 17,5%, water, H2SO4 72%, hot water and filter. b. Samples for anatomical features was made in form of thin slice of bamboo which is cut by microtome and small pieces of bamboo for maceration. Solvent and reagent was used such C2H5OH, H2O2, safranin, xylol (C5H10), H2O, canada balsam and acetate acid glacial. . . . .

Conclusion and Suggestion.

Conclusion

1. There was significant effect of location to the chemical component and anatomical features of bamboo such as lignin content, diameter of fiber, diameter of lumen fiber and proportion of parenchyma cell.
2. There was significant effect of species to the anatomical features of bamboo such as length and diameter of fiber.
3. There was significant effect of portion of the cane to the chemical component and anatomical features of bamboo such as soluble hot water extractives, soluble alcohol benzene extractives, fiber length and diameter, and lumen’s fiber diameter.
4. Chemical component and anatomical features of three species of bamboo such as Dendrocalamus asper, Schizostachyium brachycladum, Schyzostachyium lima from three locations such as Buria, Morekao and Tala, and three portion of the cane was soluble cold water (3.10%-3,79%) ; soluble hot water (5,43%-6,23%) , soluble alcohol benzene (3,37%-4,10%), alpha cellulose (3,37%-4,10%); holo cellulose (71,97%-75,57%); lignin (26,00%-27,37% ); fiber length (3,40mm-3,96mm); fiber diameter (4,34micron-4,91micron); lumen’s fiber diameter (2,74micron-3,23micron); cell wall thickness (0,76micron-0,91micron); parenchyma proportion (51,95%-56,85%); fiber proportion (27,81%-62,66%,); pore proportion (12,39%-14,60%).

Suggestions.

1. Following study have to be make is chemical component of bamboo such as starch and sugar content, soluble NaOH extractives of commercial and less known bamboo species, anatomical features such as pore diameter and vascular bundle which is not accomplish in this study.
2. There is correlation between starch and sugar content with powder post beetle attraction to the bamboo. It is important to determine what the best time to cut bamboo that may reduce powder post beetle attraction.
3. Traditionally, local people submerge bamboo in water (river) to reduce powder post beetle attraction. It is important to know how long submerge affect chemical component, physic and mechanical properties of bamboo.

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